From Architecturology to research in Architecturology
Professor Caroline Lecourtois
Ariam-Larea / ENSAPLV

Short Biography
Architecte DPLG et Docteur en Urbanisme et Aménagement de l’espace (spécialité architecturologie), Caroline Lecourtois développe, depuis 1998, ses recherches au sein du LAREA (Laboratoire d’Architecturologie et de Recherches Epistémologiques sur Architecture) devenu, en 2005, ARIAM-LAREA (Atelier de Recherche en Informatique Architecture et  Modélisation – LAREA). Elle a travaillé pendant près de dix ans sous la direction de Philippe Boudon.  Elle est aujourd’hui également Maître-assistante des écoles d’architecture Françaises et co-dirige les thèses des doctorants de son laboratoire. Ses objets de recherche portent sur  les opérations cognitives de la conception architecturale et leur assistance informatique. Ses travaux nourrissent  deux des  quatre axes du laboratoire : 1) activités de conception assistée par ordinateur et 2) modélisations précoces. (http://www.ariam-larea.archi.fr/index.php?page=presentation)

This communication will present a genesis of the French research field of Architecturology, from its creation to the researches currently developed from it at ARIAM-LAREA.
Architecturology has been thought at the creation of French Schools of Architecture that has been initiated with the French movement of 1968 May. Its major aim is to build specific knowledge on architecture for learning architecture. The first book of the beginnings of this scientific field is “Sur l’espace architectural” written by Ph. Boudon and published in 1971.
It’s currently constituted with a scientific systemic language and a paradigm that help to explain cognitive activity of design named by it, conception. This scientific language has been published in “Enseigner la conception architecturale: cours d’architecturologie” written by Ph.
Boudon, Ph. Deshayes, F. Pousin and F. Shatz, and published in 1994 and in 2000; in “Echelles” published in 2002 and which gathers different articles of Ph. Boudon and, in different articles of the team of LAREA - Ph. Boudon, Ph. Deshayes, F. Pousin, F. Shatz and C. Lecourtois.
From this scientific language and the paradigm of architecturology, I have developed methods to do researches in architecture and for extending the field of knowledge of this point of view. These methods are gathered into the concept of Applied Architecturology.
In 2005, LAREA has merged with a research team interested in Computer Aided Design, named ARIAM. To create ARIAM-LAREA, we have built a new research program on Computer Aided Conception where we use Applied Architecturology for 1) producing new knowledge on implications of Computer in cognitive activity of design and 2) developing new software to Support some operations of conception.
Three theses are currently in progress at ARIAM-LAREA on this object. They will be presented as current exemplification of our scientific program.
Keywords: Architecturology, Applied Architecturology, cognitive activity of design, conception, operations of conception.

Action in the hypothetical real
Professor Johan De Walsche
Department of Design Sciences, Artesis University College Antwerp

Short Biography
Johan De Walsche is associate professor in the department of Design Sciences, section Architecture at the University College of Antwerp in Belgium. After combining architectural practice and teaching architectural design, he was chairing the architectural program. His research topics are local building culture versus globalisation and research by design. He is currently involved in a study on research by design as a way to establish a teaching-research nexus in the architectural design studio. He is a member of the EAAE Research Committee.

Since the connection between research and design gradually becomes established, the question how to construct knowledge and understanding out of a design or a design process increases significance. Parallelism between design and action research is well described in literature. Both methods relate actors and factors to new situations, in order to reach a specific empiric goal through a systematic and sequential process.
This study explores architectural research by design as a cyclic process, derived from descriptions of action research, but paraphrased to stages of a design process. It examines the possibility of making valid decisions based on findings of a design, and of a design process. A cyclic model serves as a vehicle to study stages of, among others, reflection, evaluation and decision in cases of research-by-design projects.
How striking similarities between design and action research may be, their relationship with reality is fundamentally different. Whereas action research is dealing with processes of change in real live, recording and studying real effects of change, in design major decisions are taken based on possible, probable, highly expectable , but not-recorded effects. Reality in architectural design often is virtual and the intentions and reasoning of the designers argumentation not proven by real life. Although under this conditions it is not possible to make absolute generalizations, reduction and simulation of reality, as offered by design, is often the most appropriate way of gaining knowledge and understanding.
 It can be expected that for some cases inter-disciplinarity or inter-subjectivity, and iterative feedback with peers and stakeholders can ground assumptions, and improve quality of the outcome.

Researching and designing GREAT, the extremely condensed hybrid urban block
Professor Susanne Komossa
Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture

Short Biography
Susanna Komossa is graduated from the Delft University of Technology, Faculty of Architecture. After working as an architect in architectural offices in Rotterdam and Amsterdam she started in 1991 her own Rotterdam based firm Komossa architecten bna. As an associate professor of Architectural Design she coordinates, teaches and lectures in the masters program of Public Building at the Delft Faculty of Architecture since 2004. Her research and teaching focus on Public Realm: composition and tectonics that
form a part of the AP-2 research portfolio ‘Architecture and the City’. She is co-editor and author of ‘Atlas of the Dutch urban block’ (Bussum, Thoth 2005). The Atlas was accompanied by a traveling exhibition and lectures on a variety of themes concerning the Dutch urban block. In 2009 the D/E edition of ‘The book Color in Contemporary Architecture, projects, essays, time line and manifestoes’ (Amsterdam, Uitgeverij SUN 2009) was published. Her PhD-thesis deals with ‘The Dutch urban block and the public realm; models, rules, ideals’ (Nijmegen, Vantilt 2010). Recently she researches the possibilities for the transformation of Dutch elementary schools within the framework of the Old School / New School project and urban hybrid buildings as examples of extremely densified urban blocks. February 2010 Tekeningenboek Stadsgebouwen was published, see also ww.grootgrotergrootst.nu.

The fact that the hybrid building is an extremely condensed urban block which increases the city’s density and contributes to the public realm of the city – horizontally as well vertically - forms one of the key interests of this documentation, research and master studio work.
The “ground scraper” is not only public because of the character of its plinth facing surrounding streets, but also in regard to its interior space that is partly accessible to public. As such the European hybrid building potentially extends the city’s public domain horizontally and vertically into the building’s interior and links the public domain inside and outside. Notwithstanding, the hybrid building due to its specific and unconventional character represents a truly urban architecture that was unfortunately often rejected in the name of ‘purity’ of form and function during the twentieth century. Or with other words, its rejection demonstrates the domination of the building’s plan opposed to the section.
Today, new frameworks for the city, like the “compact city,” ask for innovative interpretations and designs of building types, worthy to be investigated and proposed. The architectural type of the hybrid building, (re)defines and expresses the relation between architecture and the city in a specific manner.
To begin with, the city of Rotterdam forms the first test-case of the Hybrid’s project to document and discuss statements, such as “the hybrid building has a long-standing tradition within this ‘modern city”, “it is a machine for urbanity,” “it enlarges the city,” “it innovates because of its ambitiousness but also because of necessity,” “it combines to activate,” “it asks for extraordinary design intelligence and craftsmanship.”
A special way of drawing is developed to document, analyse and compare historical and contemporary representatives of the species. The method includes panoply of scales ranging from the morphological arrangement on the scale of the city, the typologies of stacking diverse programs to the architectural features that establish the mutual relationship between the public space of the city and the interior of the building. Basically the features analysed within the series of drawings are also constitutional for (the success of) every future hybrid building.
The research theme is developed by the Architecture chair of Public Building (Susanne Komossa, Nicola Marzot and Michiel Riedijk) and the chair of Typology (Roberto Cavallo), Faculty of Architecture TU-Delft in active collaboration with Francesco Cinquini (University of Pisa); Job Floris and Froukje van de Klundert (Academie van Bouwkunst Rotterdam/ Monadnock); Arie Lengkeek and Jos Stoopman (Architecture International Rotterdam - AIR) and Annette Mathiessen (Dienst Stedenbouw en Volkshuisvesting Rotterdam - dS+V).

OpenSimSim: crowd sourcing and open commons in design and education
Professor Daniel Dendra
Faculty of Architecture and Building Engineering in Anhalt University of Applied Sciences - Dessau Institute of Architecture

Short Biography
In 2007 anOtherArchitect (aA) was founded by Daniel Dendra as a multidisciplinary research and design platform with a focus on sustainable strategies, connections between virtual networks and real tectonics and urban design processes. 
Ever since aA has served as a cooperative platform for architects, artists, fashion designers, landscape architects, environmental specialists and structural engineers.
In 2008 Daniel Dendra was nominated for the International Chernikhov Prize. aA ́s work was exhibited widely at locations such as the Royal Academy Summer Show 2008 (London), the International Model Festival in Budapest in 2008, Milan Furniture Fair 2009, Furnex Cairo 2009, Parametric Prototypes (Xian - China) 2009, +20 Cairo 2010 and the Venice Architecture Biennale 2010.
Before founding aA Daniel Dendra was working at various design offices in London, Moscow, Düsseldorf and Rotterdam such as A.M.O. (Rem Koolhaas) and Zaha Hadid Architects.
After leading a studio together with Dr. Jenny Lowe at Brighton University (UK) Daniel Dendra was appointed visiting professor at DIA (Dessau Institute of Architecture | Bauhaus Dessau) where he is leading a design studio since 2007. 
Since 2010 Daniel has become a studio master of GREENlab together with Thomas Auer (Transsolar) at the Ecole Spéciale d ́Architecture in Paris (ESA Paris).
In 2008 and 2009 Daniel was initiating several student competitions such as the Zeppelin- Station in Moscow, canI in Kiev and the School of the Future in Cairo.
In 2008 Daniel was curator of CANactions 2009 - a festival for young architects in Kiev, Ukraine. 
Daniel Dendra is a founding partners of the OpenSourceDesign Network: OpenSimSim, cloudscap.es and the future city lab.

The internet changed many bastions of our every day life.
Accessibility of information became much simpler and to most researchers it is available at a fingertip wherever they have access to the world wide web. Our vertical knowledge cathedrals turned into a series of large horizontal bazaars.
The talk will cover some of the downsides of the movement but mainly concentrate on the new possibilities and changed framework for researchers showing also examples of student works of the Dessau Institute of Architecture (DIA Dessau).
OpenSimSim is one of several examples covered in order to discuss emerging ways of sharing information and conducting research with the help of crowd sourcing and open source ideologies.
Daniel Dendra will also talk about his own experience with projects such as the cloudscap.es award and introduce a new collaborative research program called Future City Lab (ftr.ct.lb).
The principles of Open innovation and Open Source naturally will lead into discussing the importance of copy right and intellectual properties in architecture and urban design.

Research in Architecture Looking Backward and Forward: Forty-Year Experience in Architectural Research at the Faculty of Architecture STU
Professor Julian Keppl
Faculty of Architecture, the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava. Slovakia

Short Biography
Born: 1950, Levoča, Slovakia. Professor of Architecture, Licensed Architect SKA (Slovak Architects Chamber). affiliation: Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Faculty of Architecture, Institute of Sustainable and Experimental Architecture. Position: the Director/co-ordinator of Master (Engineer) Study Programme in „Architecture“ (Ing.arch.) and the Directior/co-ordinator of PhD Study Programme in „Architectural Structures“,
My preferred fields of interest: relations between architecture and environment, sustainable architecture, ecological conception of architectural design, use of ambient energy in buildings (focused on solar energy) and geometry of sun rays, what was the main object of my research during my academic year stay as a Fulbright Scholar at the University of Southern California (USC) in Los Angeles.
I taught  and gave lectures at USC, UCLA, Calpoly Pomona (California), at the Kansas State University in Manhattan (Kansas), at the University of Manchester, universities in Oslo, As, Trondheim (Norway), Danube University in Krems (Austria), KTH Stockholm (Sweden). My preferred field of teaching at my Faculty of Architecture is Design studio in 1st and 2nd year of master’s study: topic studios are focused on sustainable architecture and experimental architecture.
Besides my work at STU I run a small architectural practice, I have done more than 80 projects, more than 30 were accomplished. The biggest and the most recognised project was the project of an office building for a pharmaceutical firm UNIPHARMA in Bojnice, Slovakia. The office building was awarded the Prize the Building of the Year 1999 especially for ecological approach to architectural design.
The introduction of my contribution contains brief information on the Faculty of Architecture of the Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (FA STU) and the architectural research performed at this institution. Schemes and priorities of our research in architecture have changed several times since the very beginning in early 50’. The most significant change occurred after “the velvet revolution” in 1989. Since 1990 there have existed several sources to support research at universities from.
The significant part of my contribution is rooted in my own research experience since the time I had joined FA STU in 1975 as a young architect and researcher. The period of 80’ is characterized by the first unintentional attempts to do “research by design” and my “scientific” achievements as by-products of my design work. Some of them resulted in the following issues: conception of mezzo-space, theory the complex perception of architectural space and definition of basic principles of ecologically conscious architecture. Nowadays I continue my research by design within the application of so called solar envelope in urban scale with my students.

Research by Design – a research strategy
Professor Jørgen Hauberg
The Royal Danish Academy of Fine Arts - School of Architecture, Institute for Design and Communication

Short Biography
Vice Dean of the Danish Academy of Fine Arts, School of Architecture,  head of institute of Design and Communication.
Associate Professor, architect MAA. Born 1945.
RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENTWORK: About the Housing Question – Sustainable Building Types (working title); Architecture and Sustainability; The Relative Autonomi of Architecture. A re-reading of Modernism through Le Corbusier; Creation of Architectonic Forms ; Urban Renewal in Copenhagen; Planning of New Towns; Cities and Modes of Productions – an Atlas of Town History; About the Housing Question.
PUBLICATIONS: Architecture and Sustainability – ’the House Machine’, historic analyse. Architecture and Sustainability – ’the City Machine’, historic analyse. Architecture and Sustainability – achieved through Localisation and Density. Architecture and Sustainability – Technologies. Architecture and Sustainability – ’the Linear City’, a proposal. Network as principle for Localisation. About the Modern House – and the Classical. Le Corbusiers Villa Shodhan, preface. The Relative Autonomi of Architecture. Closed Plan – Open Plan, the space of Adolf Loos and Le Corbusier. Study Projects 91-92. Bispebjerg – a Modern Programme on Classical Ground. Chandigarh. The Problem of Urban Renewal in the Copenhagen Area. Reconstruction and Urban Renewal in Copenhagen, historic analyse. Employment, Industrial Development and Urban Reconstruction. Opinions about People and Environment. English New Towns - Milton Keynes. About the Housing Question. Publications for travelling: Bologna, Paris, London, Sydschweiz and Norditalien, Barcelona, Prag, Le Corbusier, Andrea Palladio. KAs Schoolpublications from 2006 to 2010.
SELECTED LECTURES ABOUT LE CORBUSIER: Le Corbusier and la Promenade Architecturale. Le Corbusier and la Polycromie Architecturale. About the Modern House and the Classical - Le Corbusier og Andrea Palladio. Le Corbusier, the Modern Programme and Paradigme. Le Corbusier: The Volume, the Surface and the Plan. Le Corbusier: About Regulating Lines and the Modulor. About Le Corbusiers Constructions. Le Corbusier: The Five Points and the Four Compositions. Le Corbusier: The fourths figure – from Villa Savoye to the Cashba. Le Corbusier: La Tourette. Le Corbusier: The Laboratory of the White Villas. Le Corbusier: The three Settlements and the Linear City. Le Corbusier: The Vertical Garden City. Le Corbusier: Maison Dom-ino and L'Esprit Nouveau. Le Corbusier: The Testament. Le Corbusier versus Frank Lloyd Wright: High raise/density versus urban sprawl. About the Colours of Modernism: From Le Corbusier and Van Doesburg to Vilhelm Lauritzen and Finn Juhl. The Space of Adolf Loos and Le Corbusier. Le Corbusier and Chandigarh. Le Corbusier: Cars and Furnitures.
SELECTED OTHER LECTURES: About Architecture and Sustainability. Towns and Modes of Production. About Urban Renewal. About Planning of New Towns. Danish Collective Houses. Areas and Dwellings for Workers in Copenhagen. Utopic Socialists and the Cooperative Movement. The Modern Development of Danish Towns. Industrial Development in Danish Regions. C.F.Hansens buildings in Altona and København. Soldins Charitable Institution – Kunstnerkollegiet. Nicolai Eigtved: Frederikstaden. Camillo Sitte: Townbuilding. Edvard Heiberg: Cooperative architects. Closed Plan - Open Plan, the space of Adolf Loos and Le Corbusier. About Proportion. About Composition. Rietveld and Van der Velde. Bauhaus’ Furnitures. Grundtvigskirke: History and Maintenance. About Forming Cars and Energy Consumption.
ARCHITECTURAL COMPETITIONS: Bispebjerg Chapel and Crematorium. Concerthall in the Harbour of Copenhagen. The Museum of Art in Copenhagen. Vacation Towns in Kolding and Ribe. The new Engholm Church in Allerød. Bornholms Museum of Art. Renewal in Dwelling Areas and Town Regions. Visiting Center at Dybbøl Banke. Headquarter for Sydbank, Åbenrå. New Town Areas in Esbjerg. Springbanen in Gentofte. Gasværksgrunden in Østerbro. Swimming Bath in Køge. Copenhagen Harbour. KABs Competition on Østerbro. Primary School in Gjellerup. Statens Kunstfonds Competition in cooperation of artists and architects
EXHIBITIONS: Digital Practice, research exhibition, Institute of Design and Communikation (Curator). Building and Planning Research, contribution to exhibition, Institute of Planning. Forårsudstillingen on Charlottenborg, contribution.
SELECTED OTHER WORKS: Professional employment: Arkitekt Henning Larsen, Arkitekt Carl R. Frederiksen, Arkitekt Leif Olsen.
Profession in independent office: Housing, summer cottages, townplanning, traficplanning, roads and green areas, high schools, renovation, freelance illustrator. Maintenance and supervision in Grundtvigskirke.
Interdisciplinary development projects, Design: Development project for a Microcar. Development project, body work and interior for an Aerodynamic Car. Development project for a balance system in cars.
The idea of an expressive component in research is important to the architectural industry. The expressive element - the possibility of expressing the qualitative aspects of the world and adding something new to the existing through experiments and proposals - is characteristic for the field.
All research environments, in the science tradition and in the humanities, have their characteristics. On the one hand, they live up to certain common scientific and methodological criteria - originality and transparency - on the other hand they have different practices, using different methods. Research is ‘coloured’ by traditions and professions, and research in architecture should be coloured too, taking in consideration that the practise of architects stretch from natural science and sociology to art, and because the most important way in which the architect achieves new cognition is through the work with form and space – drawings, models and completed works. Probably all good design is informed by some kind of research – research based design. But can research arise from design?

Digital Morphogenesis: An approach to project method through model construction (ARX Portugal: a study case)
Arq. Nuno Mateus
Departamento de Arquitectura da Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa.

Short Biography
Nasceu em Castelo Branco, em 1961 e licenciou-se em Arquitectura, em 1984,  pela FAUTL (Faculdade de Arquitectura da Universidade Técnica de Lisboa. Em 1987 fez o "Master of Science in Architecture and Building Design”, na Universidade de  Columbia, em Nova Iorque. Trabalhou com Peter Eisenman, em Nova Iorque, de 1987 a 1991 e com Daniel Libeskind, em Berlim, em 1991, entre outros. Tem ensinado em diversas Escolas de Arquitectura, foi Director do DA/UAL, Departamento de Arquitectura da Universidade Autónoma de Lisboa de 2004 a 2007 e exerce actualmente a docência no DA/UAL, Projecto III e VI, na FA/UTL Projecto V e ESARC-UIC (Barcelona) em Proyectos II. É desde 1997 orientador individual de Projecto Final (6ºano) na ESAP.
Em 1991 fundou a ARX Portugal Arquitectos, com José Mateus. Proferiu e participou em inúmeras conferências sobre o trabalho da ARX Portugal em diversos países.Foi convidado, em Portugal, para diversos juris de concursos nacionais e internacionais.
O trabalho da ARX tem obtido diversas distinções e prémios dos quais de podem salientar o “International Architecture Awards“, The Chicago Athenaeum, EUA, 2006 (Biblioteca Municipal de Ílhavo), "Prémio AICA", Associação Internacional dos Críticos de Arte / Ministério da Cultura 2003, Nomeação para o "Prémio Secil 2002", nomeação para o "Prémio Mies Van Der Rohe 2002" e "XXI Encontro Internacional do UIA", Berlim, Alemanha, 2002 (Museu Marítimo de ílhavo). Para além de inúmeros artigos em jornais e revistas generalistas ou especializadas, foram já publicadas 3 monografias sobre o trabalho da ARX: "Uma Segunda Natureza" (Blau)  e "Realidade Real" (CCB) em 1993 e "Museu Marítimo de Ílhavo" (Caleidoscópio), em 2004. O trabalho da ARX foi objecto de uma Exposição Monográfica, "Realidade Real" que inaugurou o Centro de Exposições do Centro Cultural de Belém (CCB) em Junho de 1993. Desde então tem integrado exposições colectivas ou monográficas, um pouco por todo o mundo. Em 2007 foi emitido um selo pelos CTT-Correios de Portugal com o Museu Márítimo de Ílhavo, integrado na colecção de Arquitectura Contemporânea Portuguesa.

The work of ARX has for a long time been based on the construction of systematic models. Each project evolves on a variable sort of small scale constructions, possibilities and tests, sometimes wanderings of unpredictable outcome.
It is literally a permanent under-construction process.
The model is always taken as a kind of anticipation (project: the future is now) , a construction in itself, and like every construction it is built with a determined material, on a particular scale and is subject to gravity (it has weight). It is always anchored or conceptually floating from the ground, but in any case depending on it. It has to structure itself.
Many different kinds of models, with different aims and purposes are being built on a particular project. The number can vary from project to project, easily reaching a third digit on large scale commissions.
Not every project is subject to the same modelling sequence, at the same scale, or of similar notional qualities. In any case, like in Geology, there is a condition of accumulation and sedimentation.
Usually we find a site model in the beginning of each project. It is always a selected and filtered reality. The first project decisions (extension, abstraction, way of building it, hierarchy) have been taken.
On medium size commissions of particular buildings, models of the programmatic components are made at the context scale, and placed upon it, not only as a measuring device, but experimenting inner relationships, adjusting programme to place or taking the first steps towards meaning.
Several different types will follow, such as searching for a conceptual strategy or checking  on a particular aspect of the building (space, light, materiality, etc).  
Some models are of apparent no use, or cathartic. They keep the process in motion, and leave doupt open. Sequences are often made, either comparative on a parallel manner or evolving on a progressive mode. It is an insisting process, that learns with itself and reintroduces its findings in the process, as a self-feeding chain.
The presentation will be composed on two parts: one as a kind of model taxonomy or quasi-scientific analysis of the mental drawing , based on the broader work of ARX, and in a second part it will focus on two particular (and different) projects, as tentative demonstrative samples of the analysed method.

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